Three Kinds of Identity Politics: Traditional, Socialist, and Neoliberal
1. Traditional identity politics
For most of human history, identity politics were the politics of the powerful. They promoted a hierarchy that put men above women, people of their tribe above people of other tribes, and people of the ruling class above people of the working class.
Rebels and freethinkers who believed in the equality of all humans opposed them. In ancient times, these universalists were prophets and philosophers. A line from the Christian Bible illustrates that: